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Geiger Counter is gas discharge device for automatically count the number of ionizing particles caught in it. It is a gas-filled capacitor which breaks when the span of an ionizing particle through the gas volume. Additional electronic circuit provides a power meter (typically at least 300), provides, if necessary, discharge quenching and counts the number of discharges through the meter. Geiger counters are divided into not self-extinguishing and self-extinguishing (does not require an external circuit discharge termination). Halogen self-quenching counters have the lowest supply voltage, excellent output parameters, and high enough speed, they proved to be particularly suitable for use as ionizing radiation sensors in household appliances radiation monitoring. Counters of this type of a named you can find on this site.
Cylindrical Geiger-Muller tube consists of a metal or metallized inside the glass tube, and a thin metal wire stretched on the cylinder axis. The thread serves as the anode, the tube - the cathode. The tube is filled with a rarefied gas, in most cases using inert gases - argon and neon. Between the cathode and the anode, a voltage of hundreds to thousands of volts, depending on the geometric dimensions of the electrode material and the gaseous medium inside the counter. In most cases, Geiger counters require voltage 400 V.
An important feature of the meter is its effectiveness. Not all the γ-photons that fall onto the counter, and the secondary electrons will be registered as acts of γ-rays interact with matter are relatively rare, and some of the secondary electrons is absorbed in the walls of the device, without reaching the gas volume.
The efficiency of detection of particles by the Geiger counter is different, depending on their nature. Charged particles (e.g., alpha and beta rays) cause discharge in the counter almost always, but some of them lost in the walls of the counter material. This is especially true for the alpha particles and the soft beta radiation. For recording in the counter make thin (2-7 microns for registering alpha radiation and 10-15 for soft beta-radiation) window of mica, aluminum, or beryllium foil or polymer film. The effectiveness of the counter for the X-ray and gamma-radiation depends on the thickness of the walls of the counter, their material and energy gamma radiation.
Widespread use of Geiger counter due to the high sensitivity, the ability to detect different types of radiation, the relative ease and low cost of installation.
When measuring the weak flow of ionizing radiation using the Geiger counter you must take into account its own background, which is present even in the thick lead shield. One reason for this spontaneous activity is a tough counter of space radiation, penetration without significantly weakening even after tens of centimeters of lead and consisting mainly of the muon. After every square centimeter of the surface of the earth flying an average of about one muon per minute, while the detection efficiency of Geiger practically equal to 100%. Another source of background - a radioactive "contamination" of the counter materials. In addition, a significant contribution to your own background gives spontaneous emission of electrons from the counter cathode.
However, almost all devices, except of specialized devices that are used for research purposes, have similar shortcomings. And, despite this, the Geiger counters is still actually the most accurate and affordable means of measuring radiation. With the help of devices placed on this page, you can always be confident in the safety of your home, family members and pets. If you own the property, like to travel or just want to be confident about yourself and loved ones, a Geiger counter - is one of the most necessary purchases. On the product page you can read a detailed description of each type of unit and learn about its specific advantages, as that may be:
- speed of measuring and data processing
- types of radiation measurement
- measuring range
- the type of dosimeter installed
- basic characteristics: size, weight, availability of display, etc.
- the type accumulator
- the ability to connect to PCs and mobile devices using Bluetooth
- types of radiation notifications: with the exception of standard cod it can be a different sound, vibration and LED-notification
You can find Geiger Counters on this page and choose one.